dr. M.E.S. (Marlena) Whiting
Faculty of Humanities
Kloveniersburgwal 48 Room number: D 0.07
1012 CX Amsterdam
Gendering Sacred Space: Female Networks, Patronage, and Ritual Experience in Early Christian Pilgrimage
From 324 CE to the seventh century, we can identify, by name, a dozen women who travelled across Christendom in pursuit of spiritual encounters. While these women are central to the discussion of early Christian pilgrimage (a practice that prompted key developments in art, communications, and the economy), it has primarily been in terms of what they can tell us about pilgrimage in general, without reference to their gender. My project will shift the focus onto them specifically as female pilgrims, and how being female made their experiences unique, rather than paradigmatic of pilgrimage as a whole.
In this project I employ textual sources and archaeology to analyse three aspects of female pilgrimage: networks, patronage, and the ‘lived’ experience of women on pilgrimage both as travellers and as worshippers. This will significantly change our understanding of pilgrimage as a gendered act, and shed light on how women experienced moving through both geographic and social space in this most quintessential of early Christian devotional acts.
This project is funded by a Veni Grant from the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)
‘Monastery Hostels in Late Antique Syria, Palestine and Transjordan’ in Z.T. Fiema, J. Frösén and M. Holappa, eds, Petra – The Mountain of Aaron II: The Nabataean Sanctuary and the Byzantine Monastery (Helsinki, 2016), 108-13.
‘Catalog of Selected Registered and Other Finds’ with A. Lehtinen in Z. T. Fiema, J. Frösén and M. Holappa (eds), Petra – The Mountain of Aaron II: The Nabataean Sanctuary and the Byzantine Monastery (Helsinki, 2016), 369-79.
‘Asceticism and Hospitality as Patronage in the Late Antique Holy Land: the examples of Paula and Melania the Elder’ in M.E. Mullett, M. Grünbart, G. Fingarova, M. Savage, L. Theis, eds, Female Founders in Byzantium and Beyond (Vienna, 2013), pp. 73-83.
'Mount Nebo’ in R. Bagnall and K. Brodersen, eds, The Encyclopedia of Ancient History (2012).
‘The Metal Objects from the Church and Chapel’ with S. Pouta in J. Frösén and Z. Fiema, eds, Petra – The Monastery of Aaron. Volume 1: The Church and Chapel (Helsinki, 2008), pp. 393-404.
Khirbet et-Tannur was a religious sanctuary of the Nabataeans, ancient Arabs whose capital was the rose-red rock-cut city of Petra in Jordan. Excavated in 1937, the temple sculptures from Khirbet et-Tannur are in important public collections fo the Jordan Museum and the Cincinnati Art Museum. Nelson Glueck's fascinating scientific finds from the dig were buried deeply in the Harvard Semitic Museum until they were unearthed by scholars decades later in 2002. New research on his discoveries and the site's sculpture by a team of experts illuminates the religious practices and art of the Nabataeans. This "gem of a small Nabataean temple" has a fascinating story that is now being brought to new light.
Available for purchase via Amazon.
- Whiting, M. E. S. (2017). A River Runs Through It: The Role of the Tigris and Euphrates in Transport and Communication in Late Antiquity. In T. Papacostas, & M. Parani (Eds.), Discipuli dona ferentes: Glimpses of Byzantium in honour of Marlia Mundell Mango (pp. 37-67). (Byzantios: Studies in Byzantine History and Civilization; Vol. 11). Brepols.
- Whiting, M. E. S. (2017). Gift of the Orontes: fluvial landscapes of northwest Syria in late antiquity. In T. Franconi (Ed.), Fluvial Landscapes of the Roman World (pp. 127-137). (JRA Supplementary Series; Vol. 104). Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology.
- Whiting, M. E. S. (2017). Review of Imperial Transportation and Communication from the Third to the Late Fourth Century: The Golden Age of the cursus publicus. L. Lemcke (Collection Latomus 353, 2016). Plekos - Elektronische Zeitschrift für Rezensionen und Berichte zur Erforschung der Spätantike, 19, 357-365.
- Whiting, M. E. S. (2017). The kastron and fortifications of Androna northeast of Hama: Review of Al Andarin, das antike Androna. Die Oberflächenbefunde und Grabungsergebnisse: die Umfassungsmauer und das Kastron. C. Strube (Monographien des RGZM, Band 121, 2015). Journal of Roman archaeology, 30, 930-932.
- Whiting, M. E. S. (2016). Monastery Hostels in Late Antique Syria, Palestine and Transjordan. In Z. T. Fiema, J. Frösén, & M. Holappa (Eds.), Petra – The Mountain of Aaron II: The Nabataean Sanctuary and the Byzantine Monastery (pp. 108-13). Helsinki.
- Whiting, M. E. S. (2017). Accommodating Female Pilgrims in the Late Antique Holy Land. HospitAm: Hospitalités dans l'Antiquité méditerranéenne: sources, enjeux, pratiques, discours..
- Whiting, M. E. S. (Author). (2017). Manar al-Athar Open Access Photo Archive منار الآثار Facebook and Twitter. Web publication/site
- Whiting, M. (2017). Egeria: An Observant Pilgrim in the Holy Land. In Crossroads: Travelling Through The Middle Ages (pp. 76-77). (Allard Pierson Museums series; Vol. 7). Zwolle: WBooks.
- Whiting, M. E. S., & Wellman, H. (2016). "A Gem of a Small Nabataean Temple": Excavations at Khirbet et-Tannur in Jordan. Groton, Mass.: Groton School Press.